Message Submit

When building systems related to Choria it might be desirable to submit data from those processes to Choria Streams without having to maintain connections from each process to Choria Broker. Additionally, dealing with interruptions to the connection would mean every process have to do its own spool management, retries and more.

Choria Server allows messages to be submitted to it for delivery to Choria Streams, Choria Server will maintain priority spools and manage retries, expiry and more on the behalf of other processes.

Now your cron jobs or one shot applications can submit data into a Stream for off-line processing and archival.

Messages submitted to Choria can be reliable or unreliable. Unreliable messages are attempted once only, and we will not wait for Acknowledgement from Choria Streams - so technically these do not require Streaming capability.

Reliable messages are retried a maximum number of times for a maximum period of time. Reliable messages are ordered on a per-priority basis. With 50 messages in the priority 1 spool, if message 1 fails messages 2 to 50 will not be delivered or attempted until message 1 was successfully delivered.


This feature added in Choria v0.23.0


Choria Server

To enable this feature set the following value in your Hiera configuration:

  plugin.choria.submission.spool: /var/lib/choria/submission
  plugin.choria.submission.max_spool_size: 500 # the default

Once this is set and Choria Server restarted it will create the directory if needed and start listening for messages there.

Creating a Stream

As a security precaution submitting a message to the subject myapp.audit will in reality submit the message to The main_collective is that configured in the server configuration file.

Lets create a stream that will receive all myapp related messages, we do this using the nats CLI, review steps in Configuration on configuring that:

$ nats stream add MYAPP
? Subjects to consume>
? Storage backend file
? Retention Policy Limits
? Discard Policy Old
? Stream Messages Limit -1
? Per Subject Messages Limit -1
? Message size limit -1
? Maximum message age limit 30d
? Maximum individual message size -1
? Duplicate tracking time window 2m
? Replicas 3
Stream MYAPP was created


Here we create a stream called MYAPP that listens on> and it will retain data for 30 days.

Submitting messages

The choria tool submit command can publish messages to Choria:

# echo '{"cnt":1}' > /tmp/payload
# choria tool submit --config /etc/choria/server.conf --reliable --sender myapp.production myapp.metrics /tmp/payload 

Or from STDIN:

# echo '{"cnt":100}'| choria tool submit --config /etc/choria/server.conf --reliable --sender mypp.production myapp.metrics -- -

This submits a message to Choria, it’s marked as reliable meaning the message will be retried until Choria Streams acknowledge the message is stored to disk. Retries are managed by the –reliable, –max-ttl and –tries flags.

If the spool is full message submission will fail.

If you wish to submit messages from within a compiled in agent you can access agent.Choria.DirectorySubmitter() which will give you access to submit messages into the spool, error when not enabled.

Messages can also be submitted programmatically from Go using the package.

Viewing messages

At this point the message should be in the Stream, we can view all messages in a pager:

$ nats stream view MYAPP
[1] Subject: Received: 2021-07-11T10:22:53+02:00

  Nats-Msg-Id: ea8918a1-d3d5-4598-9a15-8d737902dccd
  Choria-Created: 1625991772906612419
  Choria-Priority: 4
  Choria-Reliable: 1
  Choria-Sender: mypp.production


We can see the message is there, and some additional headers are set pertaining to the message. From here any NATS JetStream capable client can consume and act on the messages.

Signing Messages


This feature added in Choria v0.27.0

If the data being sent from your nodes are sensitive, or you will be taking action, possibly destructive, based on those messages you need to be sure they are from the correct source.

When Choria is deployed using Organization Issuers the messages can be signed using the ed25519 private key and the server JWT will be sent with the message.

Receivers can then:

  • Verify the JWT token is valid and signed in the Organization Issuer trust chain
  • Extract the public key for the node from the JWT
  • Verify the signature of the payload
  • Use the Identity from the JWT

In this way you know:

  • The sender is trusted by your Organization
  • The data is sent by a server holding the private key
  • The payload has not been tampered with in any way

This can be done on the CLI by passing the --sign flag.

$ echo 'hello world'|choria tool submit --config /etc/choria/server.conf --sign test  -- -
$ choria broker sub 'choria.submission.>'
[#1] Received on ""
Choria-Created: 1669894728644243262
Choria-Identity: a4568c49a6ae.choria.local
Choria-Priority: 4
Choria-Sender: user 2048
Choria-Signature: beb0385885...172d1bc21dd3eb2ee531e70e
Choria-Token: eyJhbGciOiJFZ...8kFEsmjvTWW-sBA
Nats-Msg-Id: 3a734124-9542-4bf5-9eda-f2827d26b722

hello world

Here the Choria-Signature and Choria-Token is set for these messages, the tokens package can be used to perform validation of these.